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Fire & Ice!

Iceland, the land of fire and ice, is probably the most famous volcano destination.

Iceland vegetation Iceland winter

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Iceland sits on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and also sits on top of the Iceland hot spot, a plume of heated mantle that means there is more melting underneath, and more volcanoes.

In winter it is a hostile place often covered entirely in snow.

There are many active volcanoes on Iceland and many sit along the segments of the Mid-Alantic Ridge, which you can see on land and even dive underwater to look at (see the back of your postcard).

Image credit: Iceland in Winter. Image Credit NASA
Iceland (coloured for different vegetation, snow and Ice cover). Image Credit: Dougal Jerram.

Iceland on the Mid-Atlantic Rift. Dr Volcano showing the rift valley exposed on land. Image Credit Dougal Jerram.

Energy from the ground.

The volcanic heat around Iceland leads to many hydrothermal vents, geysirs and mud pools.

The locals have harnessed the heat to produce electricity from hydrothermal power stations. They also use the thermal heat to bake bread and the hot pools to relax in.

Image Credit: Dougal Jerram

2014 – 2015 Eruption

There was a really important eruption on Iceland between 2014 -2015, where the start of the volcanic eruption was predicted by following the magma moving underground and creating mini earthquakes. Dr Volcano and a team visited it in 2014 (see the spectacular eruption images).

Image Credits: Dougal Jerram and the team (Sverre Planke, John Millett and Morgan Jones).

3D location of earthquakes

The earthquakes provide a location and magnitude which can be shown in 3D with the circle size relative to how big the earthquake was.

3D location of earthquakes leading up to the Holuhraun eruption. Image Credit: Adapted from Volcanoes of Europe by Jerram, Scarth & Tanguy 2017 (created using 3D Bulge with data from Iceland Met Office, thanks to Baering Steinþórsson)

Video

As Tanno and Iguda were writing the postcard from Iceland, a new eruption had started on the Reykjanes peninsula on Iceland. Again the volcano preceded by many earthquakes and Bæring was on hand to show their 3D locations. Check out the first video ...

Looks like the eruption could go on for some time in 2021. It has turned into somewhat of a tourist volcano, with many people going to see it (some even getting married by it). Look the second video which shows some spectacular drone footage and you can see what draws people in to see it …..WOW!!

YOUR MISSION, SHOULD YOU CHOOSE TO ACCEPT IT …

YOUR MISSION, SHOULD YOU CHOOSE TO ACCEPT IT …

YOUR MISSION, SHOULD YOU CHOOSE TO ACCEPT IT …

YOUR MISSION, SHOULD YOU CHOOSE TO ACCEPT IT …

Build your own Volcano!!

Using what you are learning and some household resources, you can build yourself a volcano model. This can be fairly small using plasticine or you can build up a detailed model with papier-mâché, cardboard, wire mesh, paints and other craft resources.

Click the picture to see a model example which was constructed by Izabel Jerram (‘Mini Dr Volcano’). As you can see, she has used a wire and cardboard base which is then covered in papier-mâché. Then it is painted over to show some of the key volcano features. She has even used some wool for a pyroclastic eruption and some pipe cleaners and real bits of rock for a strombolian eruption.

Also you can make it such that you can see a cross section into the inside of the volcano.

Your Task

There are loads of different volcanoes so, ultimately, you can design yours however you want.

You should look around the internet for some inspiration as well, as there are many different styles and types of volcano you might want to make a model of.

(Hint, the USGS volcano cartoon below is a good starting point for some of the key features).

– MISSION END –

– MISSION END –

– MISSION END –

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Your Journey So Far …

Tanno and Iguda have explored these places up to now. You can go back and visit again by clicking below.

Stromboli

Vesuvius

Erta Ale

Iceland

Great to see you here, thank you for the visit! See you next time …

Tanno & Iguda